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  New York City Bed Bug Registry Maps & Database
  Sunday 15th of July 2018 17:29 PM

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Latest Bed Bug Incidents and Infestations


We cannot vouch for the truthfulness of any report on this site. If you feel a location has been reported in error, or want to dispute a report, please contact us.

ZIP Codes :: 07030, 07086, 07087, 07097, 07302, 07303, 07304, 07305, 07306, 07307, 07308, 07309, 07310, 07311, 07390, 07395, 07399, 10001, 10002, 10003, 10004, 10005, 10006, 10007, 10008, 10009, 10010, 10011, 10012, 10013, 10014, 10015, 10016, 10017, 10018, 10019, 10020, 10021, 10022, 10023, 10036, 10038, 10041, 10043, 10044, 10045, 10046, 10047, 10048, 10055


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Does Suffocating Bed Bugs Work? | Atlantic Bed Bug Inspection

July 13th, 2018 by admin

Over the years, I cant tell you how many times Ive been in a bed bug infested residence, and talked with customers that become extremely frustrated as they face the task of solving a bed bug problem. What if there are bed bugs in my shoes? What if there are bed bugs in my radio? What if there are bed bugs in my lap top? What do I do?

All legitimate questions, and the answers havent always been easily available. We know that bed bugs will crawl inside of electronics, because we routinely read examples of bed bugs being found there. We know that bed bugs can be found on shoes, especially as in many instances, bed bugs may have hitchhiked into a home on a persons shoes. During our inspections, weve found bed bugs inside newspapers, magazines, on a persons belt, on hats, on lap tops. You get the idea.

We know that a Zapp Bug heating chamber has been a fantastic option to address many of a households items that cant be treated with pesticides. Heat kills bed bugs, theres no question about that. But what if you dont have access to a Zapp Bug? Is there another option, a less expensive option, that will also eliminate bed bugs on those items that cant be chemically treated? Which is why weve asked the question:

Does suffocating bed bugs work?

Our experience has been that it does. Weve placed hundreds of bed bugs in air-tight vials including eggs and have never seen one survive past 5 days. During these 5 days, were never opening the vials, and the vials are being maintained at room temperature.

Can suffocation be a practical, useful tool then? Absolutely when supplemented with other remediation measures.

The items youre going to want to deny air to are going to have to be on the small side: lap tops, cell phones, small electronics, shoes, toys, books, CDs, paperwork, etc. Youre going to need large enough air-tight bags that stand no chance of air finding their way inside once sealed, and no chance of tearing. Examples we can point to, and items you can Google search, would be: jumbo slider zip bags, vacuum storage bags, and space bags. All of these bags can definitely be closed and sealed properly.

Youll need to prepare to be without an essential item for a few days if suffocation is the way you wish to proceed. If being without an essential item is just not possible (ie. lap top, cell phone), then vacuuming that item can be sufficient. But for those items you can air-tight and let them sit undisturbed, then suffocation should be considered as another useful piece of ammunition in the fight against bed bugs.

If you have any question about this measure, or any other remediation measure, please call us anytime.

Read the original here:
Does Suffocating Bed Bugs Work? | Atlantic Bed Bug Inspection

Bed Bugs – Welcome to NYC.gov | City of New York

July 11th, 2018 by admin

Information for New York City Residents

Bed bug infestations are increasingly common, but there are steps that can be taken to prevent bed bugs from infesting your home. When bed bugs are present, they can be safely controlled. This web site will help you learn more about how they thrive, how to recognize and inspect for their presence, steps to take to prevent them from infesting your home, how to safely rid your home of bed bugs if they do occur, and also how to select and work with a pest management professional.

Read the guide, Preventing and Getting Rid of Bed Bugs Safely (PDF)

Bed bugs are small insects that are usually active at night when people are sleeping. Adult bed bugs have flat, brown oval bodies and are about the size of an apple seed.

The New York City area has more than 1,000 pest control companies and thousands of licensed pest management professionals. To get rid of bed bugs, you need to choose the right company, be clear about what you want done, and monitor the service you get.

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Bed Bugs – Welcome to NYC.gov | City of New York

Bed Bugs Treatment & Extermination NJ, NY, PA & MD

June 10th, 2018 by admin

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Bed Bugs Treatment & Extermination NJ, NY, PA & MD

United States, Bed Bug Registry Map Bed Bug Infestation …

June 10th, 2018 by admin

Heat Pro is Colorados premier heat treatment company for bed bug exterminations and removal, your local bed bug experts. Continue reading

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A-1 Exterminators Proven Bed Bug Control Treatment A-1 Exterminators is the premier bed bug exterminator in Utah . We start with a thorough inspection of all beds, bedrooms, known problem areas, and review the history of the infestation with the customer. We make recommendations on how to stop the spread of the bug to other parts of the house and other houses in your network of family and friends Continue reading

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Wyoming Household pests can be more than a nuisance-they can be a threat to your property and potentially your health. Click the FREE ESTIMATE button to get a qualified service technician to your house or property for full service. Continue reading

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United States, Bed Bug Registry Map Bed Bug Infestation …

Bed Bug Laws New York | NY Bed Bug Laws | Beyond Pest …

May 30th, 2018 by admin

Renee Coreas interesting article, New York vs. Bedbugs, reveals relevant references which are very tough to come across regarding the infestation of bedbugs within New York and the laws that surround them. This article is mainly directed to rental residential properties, co-op homes and steps that the renters themselves may take regarding an infestation. It also mentions laws concerning the landlords and their responsibilities when dealing with bed bugs as well as their responsibilities in general under the New York State Multiple Dwelling Law, the New York City Housing Maintenance Code, New York Real Property Law and the New York City Health Code.

The landlords are the ones who are pretty much responsible for the removal of bed bugs, am I wrong? This article also states all the possible remedies for when a landlord refuses to pay for the eradication of bedbug infestation. It reflects back to one major, agonizing time from which is almost impossible to figure out where exactly this bedbug source came from. It also mentions how it is absolutely impossible to ensure that the bed bugs will never return into your homes again. It discusses co-ops and condo rules and regulations and responsibilities of both tenants and landlords. The warranty of habitability is also listed for reference which is very informative for tenants. You can find the warranty of habitability under the Real Property Law.

Remedial steps to take under the warranty includes a precedent case for reference. It also talks about the New York State Multiple Dwelling Law, which includes tenant rights to repairs and up-keep of a clean premise. That will in part talk about vermin present in your home and how to handle the situation at hand. It mentions the New York City Housing Maintenance Code which deals with all types of residences. It also mentions the sections and codes that specifically discuss the extermination of pests and insects as well as rodents. It mentions the New York City Health Code that discusses preventative measure to take when dealing with bed bugs. It also includes a question and answer section where questions are answered by none other than Renee Corea.http://newyorkvsbedbugs.org/2009/07/13/bed-bugs-and-the-law-in-new-york-city/

If you are in need of a public advocate in the city of New York, you should contact Bill De Blasio. He has been a public advocate for the last eight years. He was the manager for Hilary Clintons successful campaign for U.S. Senate. The role of a public advocate is to watch, help, regulate and ensure residents of New York receive the services they should from their City. They deal with issues between tenants and landlords and ensure that they both act lawfully in every situation, including the extermination and prevention of all pests, such as bed bugs, cockroaches, insects and rodents.

http://pubadvocate.nyc.gov/services/HousingInformation.html

We came across yet another interesting article regarding Bedbugs. Must be our lucky day! Richard Siegler and Eva Talels, Dealing With Bedbugs discuss the impact that bed bugs have had on New York residents and how they deal with the massive infestation weve been hit by. They educate Condominium owners what steps to take when dealing with infestations in the unit. They set the limitations for the owner and for the occupant alike. They also discuss the precautions we need to take to prevent a bed bug infestation from occurring. However even the most cautious are still at high risk of getting a bed bug as their roommate. This article also discusses steps to take regarding damage to your furniture due to an infestation of bed bugs, rodents, cockroaches, and/or insects.

http://www.stroock.com/SiteFiles/Pub663.pdf

This article is extremely informative in regards to bed bugs, what they are, what they look like, and what the bites they leave behind look and feel like. It describes step by step how Hotels can now prevent the spread of bed bugs. It states that bed bugs are not causing any spread of diseases, at least theres one up-side to this whole craze. They show images of bed bugs in its actual size and an enlarged view of the bed bug. It is also informative for the frequent traveler that stays at hotels a lot. The measures the traveler needs to take to prevent them from entering your luggage which then in turn will infest your homes.

http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/vector/vector-faq1-hotel.pdf

The law that surrounds bed bugs is almost three years old according to Michael Wolfe. This article he wrote states how just how new this bed bug craze is. Now it is known that the landlords of the property are primarily responsible for the exterminating as they are supposed to keep the premise habitable. This article discusses the difference in laws in New Jersey and New York. It states who can sue for any damages caused by the bed bugs and the exterminating itself. It states that if the landlord denies or omits that fact that there are bed bugs in the unit he may be charged with fraud.

http://www.ehow.com/list_6305940_bed-bug-laws.html

There is a bed bug registry where you can check out any hotel or motel where you are planning to stay. The Bed Bug Registry is a no fee, public database of user-submitted bed bug reports from across the United States and Canada. Founded in 2006, the site has collected about 20,000 reports covering 12,000 locations. While you wont find any legal info on this site you can see if your building has been added to this growing database of apartments and buildings in NYC that have bedbug infections.

http://www.bedbugregistry.com/

The NYC Rent Guidelines Board (RGB) is mandated to establish rent adjustments for the approximately one million dwelling units subject to the Rent Stabilization Law in New York City. The Board holds an annual series of public meetings and hearings to consider research from staff, and testimony from owners, tenants, advocacy groups and industry experts.

The RGB staff is responsible for providing administrative support to the Board and prepares research regarding the economic condition of the stabilized residential real estate industry including operating and maintenance costs, the cost of financing, housing supply and cost of living indices. The RGB staff engages in year-round research efforts, publishes its reports for use by the public, other governmental agencies and private organizations, and provides information to the public on housing questions.

http://www.housingnyc.com/html/resources/faq/quality.html#demand

If you need legal help this is a great place to start. LawHelp/NY is an on-line tool for helping low-income New Yorkers solve their legal problems. The LawHelp/NY mission is as follows:

LawHelp/NY provides, and promotes access to, high-quality online information about free legal services throughout New York, about legal rights in a broad range of substantive areas, about the court system, and about related advocacy, government and social service organizations. We are committed to providing information that is user-friendly, in English, Spanish, and other languages, in order to help low-income and other vulnerable New Yorkers achieve equal access to justice.

http://www.lawhelp.org/ny/

The Legal Aid Society is a private, not-for-profit legal services organization, the oldest and largest in the nation, dedicated since 1876 to providing quality legal representation to low-income New Yorkers. It is dedicated to one simple but powerful belief: that no New Yorker should be denied access to justice because of poverty.

The Society handles 300,000 individual cases and matters annually and provides a comprehensive range of legal services in three areas: the Civil, Criminal and Juvenile Rights Practices. Unlike the Societys Criminal and Juvenile Rights Practices, which are constitutionally mandated and supported by government, the Civil Practice relies heavily on private contributions.

http://www.legal-aid.org/en/home.aspx

An Article written by Melanie West for the Wall Street Journal states that there is a new bed bug disclosure policy in play now for new leases on apartments. It says that when a lease is prepared, both landlord and tenant must sign a state form listing any bedbug infestations in the past year. Would-be renters then have a chance to back out of the lease agreement. Gov. David Patterson signed the policy in to law last month. According to this great article it says that 49% of people surveyed said they had or have a bed bug problem. According to this article bed bug infestation are everywhere these days. Many ways to prevent these little buggers from become a part of your life. Seal the holes in your homes as much as possible, pay close attention to any form of bites you may get thru ought the night, check your bed sheets for tiny little blood stains, and prayer always helps.

http://blogs.wsj.com/metropolis/2010/09/15/scarlet-b-bedbug-disclosure-comes-to-new-york/

Jessica Presslerarticle is quite interesting and pretty much states that the bed bug disputes are filling up the docket in the New York City courts because of a decision made by a tenant refusing to pay rent because of a bed bug infestation in the unit. Also yet another similar article that goes on about the same issues. This article written by E.B. Solomont a staff reporter of The Sun says that a back in 2008 the Brooklyn court located had spotted some bed bugs. It sent the court room into a frenzy. Even though a spokeswoman says that the courts were bug free.

In 2008 there were almost ten thousand bed bug complaints, Im sure that number are probably quadrupled by now. It also goes to say what is pretty well known to us by now, that it is the responsibility of the landlord to cover all costs for the extermination of the buildings and units. It also talks about different cases that dealt with bed bugs and the results of the judgments in each instance. These cases set precedents to the judgments we deal with now in our courts. According to E.B. Solomon the reason there are all of these bed bug disputes is because its difficult to prove where the bed bugs came from.

http://nymag.com/daily/intel/2008/09/bedbug_law_emerges_as_hot_new.html

Another interesting little article that we found written by Nobugsonme. This one says that there is a legislation being proposed to the insurance companies making them give back the money to renters and owners that were forced to throw out their furniture and/or clothes because of their bed bug infestation. Some bed bug infestations could end up to be very pricey, it could burn big holes in the individual wallet.

Bed bug insurance legislation proposed in New York State

We found this very informative site rentlaw.com. It is very detailed describing bed bugs, what they are, where they live, and what they feed on, you. It states how bed bugs come out at night and invade your furniture such as your bed frame, couches and mattresses to name a few. The article also reminisces how bed bugs were almost extinct after DDT. However due to health and environmental concerns DDT was banned. Now we are dealing with a bed bug crises yet again. The question we all have now is how does one get them? and how does one get rid of bed bugs? also how does one prevent them from appearing and affecting our lives? All very important questions and answers seem scarce.

This article is pretty thorough and answers all of the above questions as much as possible, as well as other legal questions regarding bed bugs that need some answers. As for how they became famous again here in the U.S. it says that we should be extra careful when we travel, as bed bugs attach themselves on to your clothing and things you may have in your luggage. They may come in with visitors we have in our homes or places of work. Also we should be very careful when we travel as hotels and other accommodations may have a bed bug infestation. This article also describes how bed bugs may travel into our homes.

It says bed bugs can travel thru duct-works and cracks in between units, also when tenants are moving in and out of the building may cause for transfer of bed bugs. This article goes on to describe what bed bugs look like, how they live. It also recommends ways in which to keep your home clean and free of clutter. Regardless of how clean and tidy you are you may still get them. This article also has a section on important bed bug laws between landlords and tenants. It states that in New York State landlords are liable for the cost of treating a bed bug problem. This is good news for the tenants.

http://www.rentlaw.com/bedbugs.htm

Another great article written by Douglas Stern Landlords vs. Tenants: Who pays when bed bugs invade?. This article is full of great information. It says that in New Jersey a legislation was introduced stating that landlords are to cover all cost for the extermination of bed bugs, annual inspections and distributing educational material created by the state. The article says that landlords are to immediately treat reported infestations and to maintain a bed bug free environment in the entire complex. It also states that all landlords that do not comply will be fined $300 for each infested apartment and $1000 for each infested common area. Its a pretty penny for landlords.

They can also do regular maintenance of the common elements to help alleviate one of the reasons that vermin might infest a property. But unfortunately no matter how clean the property may be it still may get a bed bug infestation. This is because bed bugs are a creature of convenience, similar to louse. Bed bugs go from one affected person to another. They set up tent in bedrooms and couches. During the day they hide in the cracks and crevices in your home and they come out and feed at night. This article says that bed bugs resemble small little apple seeds. But as small as they are they multiply quickly and could turn into a difficult problem.

The article goes into detail of how bed bugs are brought in to an apartment and what attracts them to these apartments. This interesting read also states how they travel from unit to unit and room to room. It says how bed bug bites are often mistaken for mosquito bites, due to the fact that they itch and turn into little red bumps. This great little article also shows that there was a 500 percent increase of reported bed bug infestations. Its such a nuisance to have but for the landlord its a nuisance to pay for something you did not do and something you cannot control. There is never any guarantee that once youve exterminated bed bugs that they will never come back.

http://www.bedbugplague.com/?p=45

According to this article written by Grace West, two bills that are under consideration will provide renters with protection and compensation regarding the bed bug craze we are now facing. It says that one State Assembly member Linda B. Rosenthal from the Upper West Side and parts of Hells Kitchen is pushing a legislation that would require landlords to divulge any history of bed bug infestation. It states that the first bill would require disclosure of any instance of bed bug infestation dating back five years. The second bill provides a tax credit of up to $750 to help with the cost of replacing property lost due to a bed bug infestation.

It also goes into more detail as to what furniture and clothing can be included in the price. I know $750 seems miniscule compared to the real amount of what may have been spent on the items, but it is a start. Rosenthal also states if the state were in better economic condition perhaps the tax credit could be higher. The article also states that its not sure of when the two bills will be voted on.

http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local-beat/New-Begbug-Bill-Would-Require-Landlords-to-Disclose-Innfestation-History-93724774.html

This article is full of useful information as it focuses on the legal end of the issues surrounding bed bugs. It says that New York city is vulnerable to bed bug infestations due to the fact that there is such a concentration of people living in such close quarters which makes it easy for them to migrate from one place to another. The article goes through series of questions and answers. From who is responsible for the cost of the extermination of bed bugs, to actions renters need to take when dealing with landlords whether legal or on your own. If legal action needs to be taken it describes the type of court you have access to in regards to bed bug and landlord issues. You can use a lawyer if you choose or you may represent yourself. It is important to know your laws, this article is very informative.

http://www.bedbugsguide.com/legal-issues-bed-bugs-new-york.htm

Found a great article dating back to 2009. This article written by Lindsey Christ for NY 1 is quite an interesting read when compared to the rise in bed bugs now in 2010. We thought bed bug infestations were bad then, now theyve almost quadrupled. The Department of Education describes how bed bugs are brought into our schools and into our lives. They are brought on student or teachers clothing, book bags and lunch bags.

The Department of Education refused to send exterminators into the schools affected until the specimens of what was found were sent to a lab. This just gave these bed bugs more time to populate those schools and create a major infestation. I guess they werent thinking ahead. It also states how the Museum of Natural History was affected by bed bugs. It says that the children in these affected schools should be given large sealed bags and they are to put their clothing and their book bags in them.

So if students have bed bugs the parents are told and asked to take action. Students and teachers were asked to do this, this way they can avoid a major infestation. It also states that the Department of Education could not completely control the bed bug problem, which is true. But they can however take preventative measures to keep the bed bug issue under control.

http://www.ny1.com/content/top_stories/109503/schools-report-rise-in-bed-bug-cases

An article written by Natalie Gee for the Epoch Times, recites all of the legal measures our government has taken and will take in regards to bed bugs. Bed bugs have become such a big part of our lives that we have created laws specifically for them. They haunt us and it needs to be at least toned down if they refuse to go into extinction. Several laws have been brought to the attention of government. Most are still in question and some have passed as laws.

A bed bug infestation can and possibly will create a substantial hole in our wallets, and depending on the infestation of these critters mental issues have also surfaced. This article goes into detail of certain laws that are yet to be passed, and one that did not pass. The one that did not pass was a tax credit law that would reimburse the person affect by a bed bug infestation for up to $750. This helps out with the cost for some of the furniture, clothes and other items that needed to be replaced due to bed bugs. But unfortunately it did not pass. It also discusses one that did pass.

This bill that passed grants prospective tenants and homeowners the right to a record of any bed bug infestation on the property. This gives the renters or buyers a more in depth look on the history of bed bug infestation, if any. It allows you to make an informed decision when renting a new place. It has been an emerging issue due to the fact that renters were being bitten almost immediately as they moved into their new place. Now stuck in a predicament with bed bugs and a lease they cant get out of, only because they werent properly informed.

http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/39551/

If you ever have any bug related issues in New York City, feel free to call us either at Beyond Pest Control. Once again, and I cant stress this enough we are on call twenty-four hours a day seven days a week to kill those bugs, we arent kidding whether you call us at 9 am or midnight we will be available to take your call and either get rid of the bug infestation, or answer any questions you may have concerning the bug issue. I can honestly guarantee that there will be someone to answer that call. We make it our business to make you bug free!

For more information, check out the rest of our site and You can also from time to time find helpful hints on our blog.

Our pest control specialists service all NYC boroughs, including Queens, Brooklyn, Bronx, Manhattan, Long Island (both Nassau & Suffolk counties), Staten Island and even both Westchester & Rockland counties.

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Bed Bug Laws New York | NY Bed Bug Laws | Beyond Pest …

New York Bed Bugs | New York Bed Bug Registry Maps

May 22nd, 2018 by admin

Before a person can prevent an infestation, it is important to know what they are, how they live and what they look like. Once you know what they look like, hopefully, before you bring them home, you can avoid staying in hotels that have them. Simply, they are small parasites that live in mattresses and other types of soft furniture. Continue reading

Bed bugs are flat and small in size, allowing them to hide easily from view during the day when they are not active. They hide in mattresses, bed frames, bedding, furniture, carpets, baseboards and bedroom clutter Continue reading

Bed bugs, bed-bugs, or bedbugs[2] are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood. Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is the best known, as it prefers to feed on human blood. Other Cimex species specialize in other animals, e.g., bat bugs, such as Cimex pipistrelli (Europe), Cimex pilosellus (western US), and Cimex adjunctus (entire eastern US).[3] The name bed bug derives from the preferred habitat of Cimex lectularius: warm houses and especially near or inside beds and bedding or other sleep areas Continue reading

Bisnow LOIS WEISS: Punishing All For The Bad Deeds Of The Few Bisnow Thanks to a bunch of jerks who should crawl back into the bedbug -filled crevices from whence they came, New York City now has about 20 new laws on its books designed to denigrate building owners and protect tenants from things that go bump in the night. Continue reading

Persistence Market Research delivers key insights on the U.K. and Germany bed bugs control services market in its upcoming outlook titled, U.K. and Germany Market Study on Bed Bug Control Services: Chemical Control Service Type Segment Expected to Gain Significant Market Share by 2026 . Continue reading

Photo Credit Victoria Roberts Q. Do spiders bite people out of fear, hunger or curiosity? A Continue reading

New York In the city that never sleeps there is one increasingly busy nocturnal resident who New York wants to evict the bedbug. Continue reading

Creepy-crawly, but also crispy-crunchy. Brave Brooklynites chowed down insects and worms from grubs to grasshoppers at the first Brooklyn Bugs Festival. Continue reading

They creep, they crawl, and they just might be in your hotel room. Continue reading

Event benefitting communitys most vulnerable draws thousands every year (ROCKWALL, (ROCKWALL, TX August 30, 2017) Local Rockwall High School (ROCKWALL, TX August 29, 2017) Lynn Ross has a Art Show coming to new venue Oct. 27-29 (ROCKWALL, TX (ROCKWALL COUNTY, TX Aug Continue reading

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New York Bed Bugs | New York Bed Bug Registry Maps

New York Bed Bug Hotel and Apartment Reports …

April 30th, 2018 by admin

Bed Bug Hotel and Apartment Reports. Click on the city below to find our latest bed bug reports in New York on hotels. To report a new bed bug incident, navigate to our city page below to see further details.

Recommended tips after hotel check-in: 1. Pick up the mattresses in the rooms and look under it. Check around the edges of the box springs. 2. Check under the box spring. 3. Lift up each headboard an lie it on the bed. Carefully inspect the hole where the headboard was lifted out of. Also, inspect all niches and corners of the headboard. 4. If you decide to stay in the hotel, do not put any clothes in dressers. Keep them in your luggage and your dirty clothes in plastic bags.

March 23rd 2018 at 9:00am I found/squished a bedbug at the foot of the bed. I then realized the notes on my neck, right hand, right shoulder, and left elbow were all from bedbugs the previous 4 days a…

Sunday, Febuary 25, 2018 at 10:00 am. While we had a stay at this place for the weekend we reported bed bugs at the room we stayed to the front desk. We demanded the front desk person to speak to a ma…

10/29/2017 8:45amRoom 269551 South transit streetLockport, NY 14094(716) 434-4411GM.NY098@choicehotels.comWe stayed over night on 10/28/17 to 10/29/17This morning when we woke up we sa…

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New York Bed Bug Hotel and Apartment Reports …

5-Star Pest Control NYC & Bed Bug Removal | Broadway …

April 15th, 2018 by admin

Brooklyn NYC ManhattanEnvironmentally-Friendly Pest Control

If you have been looking for an experienced and efficient pest control specialist in NYC, we would like to introduce you to Broadway Exterminating; A company that can rid your home or business of bed bugs, rodents, roaches, spiders, ants and many more pests. Broadway Exterminating has been offering complete pest control & extermination services to the Greater New York area since 1971, under the current ownership. We are dedicated to leading the industry in environmentally friendly and alternative pest control techniques. We eliminate all unwelcome pests from your house including bed bugs, insects, and rodents.

Located locally on the Upper West Side of Manhattan and servicing Brooklyn, Bronx, Queens and the greater New York area, our professional pest control & bed bug inspection specialists eliminate many types of parasites. Even the world famous pests & rodents from New York City do not stand a chance when you hire us as your pest control company. Our team of NYC-based exterminators are trained and are experienced with the latest techniques & strategies so they can eliminate many types of pests. If youre looking for the best pest control NYC has to offer, look no further than Broadway Exterminating.

Customer Satisfaction & results are top priority for us, and we take great pride in our reputation for excellent customer service. We offer a number of different pest solution service plan options; you are not required to enter into an on-going pest solutions contract with us. We can customize a plan for our exterminating services that will best meet your needs. We are here to solve your pest control problems in NYC and and all it’s surrounding areas.

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5-Star Pest Control NYC & Bed Bug Removal | Broadway …

Bed Bugs in New York City – The Web’s #1 Bed Bug Resource

April 8th, 2018 by admin

Before a person can prevent an infestation, it is important to know what they are, how they live and what they look like. Once you know what they look like, hopefully, before you bring them home, you can avoid staying in hotels that have them.

Simply, they are small parasites that live in mattresses and other types of soft furniture. They are nocturnal and are hard to spot during the day. They are oval-shaped, and once they have fed on blood are reddish brown in color. If you ever see an insect in your home or hotel room that is flattish, oval-shaped and reddish brown, you should catch it and try to identify it.

These parasites feed on blood, primarily human blood. This is a major creep factor is associated with them beyond simply having a home pest. They come out at night, crawl on your sleeping body and make a meal of you. Some people may find the vampire myth sexy but nobody, except maybe an entomologist, can say the same about these insects.

For most people the idea of having them is completely repulsive. They are sneaky, gross and hated around the world. They attack people when they are at their most vulnerable and leave few signs behind.

New York City is #1 in many things, but it was not prepared to become the American city with the heaviest infestation. There is a simple reason for this resurgence. International travel gives these bugs new homes quickly. New York City is certainly a major travel hub. Vacationers head to NYC but the main culprit of the outbreak is people who travel for business.

Vacationers simply go from their home to a hotel and back. They are much less likely to drop these parasites in enough hotels to cause a major problem; although vacationers are often a victim, and bring them home unknowingly. People in business spend weeks or months hotel hopping. As our society has become global these bugs have staged a comeback.

The U.S. almost got rid of them early in the last century. Then international travel became more common and people were staying in hotels in countries that were still dealing with them. People would go to different countries and bring home a little something extra in their luggage and clothing. The U.S. now has a new booming industry eradication of these pests.

New York City may have them but how does one avoid staying in a hotel that has an active infestation. The insidious thing about these pests is that they do not always live in the flea-bag motels. It would be easy to stay in a slightly more expensive hotel but that is no guarantee of an infestation-free accommodation. Actually, the more expensive hotels are just as likely to have infestations.

With the Internet age in full force there is a website that is devoted to the places with reported infestations. The Bed Bug Registry is a website where people can report their sightings and experiences. People can use this free resource to avoid bringing home an unwanted souvenir.

These insects are sneaky little devils. They only come out in the dark unless the infestation is extreme. When you turn on the lights of your hotel room, they will quickly scurry away. Although it is hard to spot them, they do leave visible signs behind.

The most prevalent signs are blood smears on the sheets and waste along the bedrails. They hide behind the headboard, along the railings of the bed and between the mattress and bedsprings. If you cannot spot the little beasties, you should become accustomed to the other signs. These pests shed skin and leave fecal matter behind. This looks like a pile of pepper or coarse ash in areas where they nest.

People may not want to spend their evenings hunting for these bugs but that is better than bringing them home. Just strip the bed, check under the box springs and glance behind the headboard. If you see any signs, ask for a new room or find a new hotel.

Normally the vehicles that you ride in are not a problem when it comes to these insects. Places where people sleep or gather cause problems. There are things that you can do to keep the bugs from coming home with you. The use of a hard suitcase is one of the best things that one can do to keep them from hitching a ride home with you. Putting your clothing into a re-sealable plastic bag before putting them into the suitcase keeps them out of your clothing.

Remember that the hotels are there to serve you. You can ask them about their policy. How often do they inspect? Do they have an exterminator come in on a regular basis? Is the housekeeping staff knowledgeable? Asking these questions will not offend the staff at a quality hotel.

Once you are in the room, you want to keep your suitcase on top of a table or dresser. You should keep your clothes packed for a brief stay. You do not have to put your clothes in the bureau or closet.

When you come home unpack in a room that plenty of hard light-colored surfaces. Shake out and wash your clothing before putting them away. Inspect your luggage. Pay close attention to the handle and wheel area of the suitcase.

Even if you accidentally stay overnight in a hotel that has an active infestation there are ways to prevent bringing them home. Wash everything that is washable prior to re-entering your home. This includes clothing, linens and bags that contain clothes. If you cannot wash it, wipe it down. If you cannot wipe it down, put it in a bag for a year. That may sound extreme but these insects can survive for an entire year without feeding again.

Hotels are not the only place that one can pick up these bugs. Guests to your home can bring them in; children can get them at sleepovers or at camp and you can even get them by picking up a castoff piece of furniture that someone left at the side of the street. The owner of that free couch or mattress may have thrown it away because of bugs. Clean every previously owned item that comes into your home.

Even the most cautious people may still end up with a hitchhiker in their suitcase. Anyone can get them but you need to get rid of them as quickly as possible. The easiest way to rid your home of these pests is to contact a pest control company and let them deal with it. You can try DIY extermination but they are very hard to kill. Only a few chemicals will work on them. If you use the right pest killer but miss a few bugs, you will be right back where you started.

Talk to your neighbors. One of the best ways to find the best service is to find out whom your neighbor uses. Sure, it may be a little embarrassing but you do not have to be too specific about why you need a pest company.

Check the ads of the company. If they do not specifically mention these bugs, they may not be experienced their eradication. Ask questions of your pest control company. Make full use of your free consultation and inspection prior to making a decision. Do not listen to grandiose claims. It is difficult to get rid of these bugs. A reputable company will not claim that they can get rid of your problem with one visit.

When the pest company comes to treat your home, they will give you some homework. All homeowners need to do their part by following the instructions that the pest control company suggests. Remember, they are the professionals and you are paying for that knowledge. Follow their advice.

Although they bite, they do not transmit any diseases. However, some people are allergic to the bites. This can cause red and itchy circles to appear on the body. A little cortisone cream will control the itching but the only way to avoid bites is to rid your home of the infestation. Severe scratching of the bites may potentially lead to an infection but this is unrelated to the bugs themselves. If you itch until you break the skin, wash the sore area with soap and water to avoid infection.

The bites normally occur in clusters. There will be a line or collection of little circles on a part of the body. If you notice an unexplainable rash on your body that presents itself as itchy circles, check for an infestation. The inner arms, face and neck are prime feeding spots. These areas are often left uncovered during sleep and are easy places for the bugs to feed.

With the high number of infestations occurring in New York City the city has had to put a few recommendations into place to help combat the problem. Disposing of infected material is a major problem. When people put household items at the curb for the New York City sanitation department to pick up, people who may need the items salvage them for their own use. This spreads the infestation from home to home.

When disposing of a household item that has an active bug population New York City recommends the owner put a sign on the item that announces that it contains bed bugs. This gives the potential new owner a heads up as to what they may be bringing home with their new treasure. If the person disposing of the item can place it into a trash bag, they should do so. This keeps the bugs from leaving and keeps people from knowing what you are throwing away.

People should cut or damage larger items prior to placing them at the curb. A large slice in a mattress, box springs or couch will make it less attractive to scavengers. Do not bring new items into the home until the infestation has been eradicated. Failure to do so just gives them new places to hide and breed. An infested item is not something that one should donate. Giving to charity is great but giving something that will simply cause additional problems to the person you are trying to help is not very nice.

Apartment owners in New York City have the additional problem of keeping them from moving from apartment to apartment. Ask all tenants to report an infestation to the building management immediately. The owner or manager of the building will then be able to call an exterminator in to handle the problem. One should inspect all vacant apartments prior to finding a new tenant. It is easier to treat an empty apartment instead of one that is occupied.

Places where people come to stay for short durations are typically hit hard. The homeless, elderly and medically vulnerable do not need the additional stress of suddenly discovering that their sanctuary is also a haven for these parasites. This is a sensitive issue but one that does need to be addressed.

It is much easier to prevent an infestation than it is to treat one. All staff in any group living situation should be trained to interview new guests. The home should develop a regular set of questions that pinpoint possible carriers while allowing the person answering the questions to maintain their dignity and self-respect. Staff should ask the questions in a respectful and compassionate manner. When one feels as though someone is interrogating them, they may not give truthful answers.

Keeping bugs out can mean getting rid of plush and upholstered furniture. Bed frames should be metal, plastic and metal furnishing and no headboards are the best defense against them finding a hiding place. Linens and anything made of wood should be white. It is easier to spot them on a light colored surface. Box springs should be in a plastic sleeve. Do not use anything made of wicker. The open weave of wicker gives them too many places to hide.

Make eradication part of the culture of the home. Talk openly about them and encourage all residents to report any that they see. Getting rid of the taboo and shame associated will go far toward an open discourse within the home.

Have an exterminator on contract. If you have, or have had a problem, keep your exterminators coming by. They can check for pests and correct any problems early.

Reports of bugs being spotted in New York City public schools have parents concerned. The schools are required by law to report any instances. The infestations are not severe but do show just how prevalent they are. The schools claim that there are just a few bugs here and there but people should still be on the lookout.

Nobody expects to get these bugs from their movers. The surprising fact that movers are spreading them shocks people moving to a new home. The bugs hitch a ride in the moving truck and just wait for a comfy sofa to come in. This is the type of housewarming gift nobody wants or needs. It is important to ensure that you use a quality moving company. Many small unreliable companies out there are more than willing to take your money without offering a great service. Check the references of any moving company that you may be thinking of hiring.

According to ABC News, tourism is being adversely affected by these bugs. The Empire State Building and Bloomingdales, both top tourist attractions, have had recorded these bugs being spotted. When people read about this, they sometimes choose to take their vacation dollars elsewhere. People simply do not want to vacation is an area that has such creepy crawlies creeping around. A city that gets a reputation for being unclean or buggy quickly drops on the list of potential places to visit.

They do not bite if the lights are on. This is a myth. While they are most active at night, they will bite if the lights are on and there is a tasty body part handy.

Using pesticides will eradicate an infestation. This is a myth. The chemicals will not get into all the areas where they reside. You need to do a careful visual inspection and properly clean all infested rooms and items.

If an item is infested, the only option is to throw it away. This is a myth. If you can clean it, you can get rid of the bugs. If you cannot clean it, bag and store it for one year to control a new outbreak.

They are not known to spread disease. This is a fact. This was previously mentioned as a fact but bears repeating. While they are annoying and gross most experts believe that they do not carry illness.

Their bites give you itchy welts. This is both true and a myth. People that are allergic to bug bites will have a strong reaction, while those that are not allergic often times will have no reaction to the bite.

You cannot see one. This is a myth. This bug is small but is not microscopic. They are difficult to see only because of their color and that they are nocturnal creatures.

One visit from an exterminator is all you need for eradication of an infestation. This is a myth. Eradication and control requires a minimum of two visits. The exterminator should return to ensure that all bugs and their eggs are dead.

You can get a quote from a qualified exterminator over the phone. This is a myth. The price of a visit will be determined by the extent of the infestation and the size of your property. A good pest control company should offer a free consultation and then give a price estimate.

Only dirty people get them. This is a myth. Anyone can get them. The test of the sanitation of a home is how long they remain.

If you find them in your home, you are in good company. When you discover them and the owner of the property does nothing about it, call the NYC 311 line and report them. Everyone needs to do as much as they can to help combat the epidemic in New York City. It is everyones responsibility to help. Remember to be on the lookout for these pests, check your home and always use common sense in your travels.

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Bed Bugs in New York City – The Web’s #1 Bed Bug Resource

New York City Complete pest control nyc bed bug removal …

March 7th, 2018 by admin

Bed bugs, bed-bugs, or bedbugs[2] are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood. Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is the best known, as it prefers to feed on human blood. Other Cimex species specialize in other animals, e.g., bat bugs, such as Cimex pipistrelli (Europe), Cimex pilosellus (western US), and Cimex adjunctus (entire eastern US).[3]

The name bed bug derives from the preferred habitat of Cimex lectularius: warm houses and especially near or inside beds and bedding or other sleep areas. Bed bugs are mainly active at night, but are not exclusively nocturnal. They usually feed on their hostswithout being noticed.[4][5][5][6]

A number of adverse health effects may result from bed bug bites, including skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[7] They are not known to transmit any pathogens as disease vectors. Certain signs and symptoms suggest the presence of bed bugs; finding the insects confirms the diagnosis.

Bed bugs have been known as human parasites for thousands of years.[8] At a point in the early 1940s, they were mostly eradicated in the developed world, but have increased in prevalence since 1995, likely due to pesticide resistance and governmental bans on effective pesticides.[9][10] Because infestation of human habitats has been on the increase, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well.[8][11]

Diagnosis of an infestation involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms.[7] Treatment involves the elimination of the insect (including its eggs) and measures to help with the symptoms until they resolve.[7]

Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.[12] Effects include skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[7]

They can be infected by at least 28 human pathogens, but no study has clearly found that the insect can transmit the pathogen to a human being.[11] They have been found with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)[13] and with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), but the significance of this is still unknown.[14]

Investigations into potential transmission of HIV, MRSA, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E have not shown that bed bugs can spread these diseases. However, arboviruses may be transmissible.[15]

Adult bed bugs are light brown to reddish-brown, flattened, oval-shaped, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 45mm (0.160.20in) long and 1.53mm (0.0590.118in) wide.

Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug nymph of any age that has just consumed a blood meal has a bright red, translucent abdomen, fading to brown over the next several hours, and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like and, like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.

Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding, and reproduction.

The lifespan of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.

Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions.[16] Below 16.1C (61.0F), adults enter semihibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at 10C (14F), but die after 15 minutes of exposure to 32C (26F).[17] Common commercial and residential freezers reach temperatures low enough to kill most life stages of bed bug, with 95% mortality after 3 days at 12C (10F).[18] They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 3540C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.[19]

The thermal death point for C. lectularius is 45C (113F); all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46C (115F).[17] Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.[20]

A scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Cimex lectularius, digitally colorized with the insects skin-piercing mouthparts highlighted in purple and red

Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other prey are unavailable.[21][22][23] They obtain all the additional moisture they need from water vapor in the surrounding air.[24] Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.[25][26][27] Bedbugs prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck, and arms of a sleeping person.

Bedbugs have mouth parts that saw through the skin, and inject saliva with anticoagulants and painkillers. Sensitivity of humans varies from extreme allergic reaction to no reaction at all (about 20%). The bite usually produces a swelling with no red spot, but when many bugs feed on a small area, reddish spots may appear after the swelling subsides.[17]

Although under certain cool conditions adult bed bugs can live for over a year without feeding,[28] under typically warm conditions they try to feed at five- to ten-day intervals, and adults can survive for about five months without food.[29] Younger instars cannot survive nearly as long, though even the vulnerable newly hatched first instars can survive for weeks without taking a blood meal.

At the 57th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, newer generations of pesticide-resistant bed bugs in Virginia were reported to survive only two months without feeding.[30]

DNA from human blood meals can be recovered from bed bugs for up to 90 days, which mean they can be used for forensic purposes in identifying on whom the bed bugs have fed.[31][32]

The tip of a bed bug rostrum

A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with a stylet fascicle, rostrum, or beak. The rostrum is composed of the maxillae and mandibles, which have been modified into elongated shapes from a basic, ancestral style. The right and left maxillary stylets are connected at their midline and a section at the centerline forms a large food canal and a smaller salivary canal. The entire maxillary and mandibular bundle penetrates the skin.[6]

The tips of the right and left maxillary stylets are not the same; the right is hook-like and curved, and the left is straight. The right and left mandibular stylets extend along the outer sides of their respective maxillary stylets and do not reach anywhere near the tip of the fused maxillary stylets. The stylets are retained in a groove in the labium, and during feeding, they are freed from the groove as the jointed labium is bent or folded out of the way; its tip never enters the wound.[6]

The mandibular stylet tips have small teeth, and through alternately moving these stylets back and forth, the insect cuts a path through tissue for the maxillary bundle to reach an appropriately sized blood vessel. Pressure from the blood vessel itself fills the insect with blood in three to five minutes. The bug then withdraws the stylet bundle from the feeding position and retracts it back into the labial groove, folds the entire unit back under the head, and returns to its hiding place.[6] It takes between five and ten minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood.[33] In all, the insect may spend less than 20 minutes in physical contact with its host, and does not try to feed again until it has either completed a moult or, if an adult, has thoroughly digested the meal.

All bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination.[5][34] Female bed bugs possess a reproductive tract that functions during oviposition, but the male does not use this tract for sperm insemination.[5] Instead, the male pierces the females abdomen with his hypodermic penis andejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except Primicimex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege,[5] a component of the spermalege,[5] a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination.[35][36][37] Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structures called seminal conceptacles, with fertilisation eventually taking place at the ovaries.[36]

Male bed bugs sometimes attempt to mate with other males and pierce their abdomens.[38] This behaviour occurs because sexual attractionin bed bugs is based primarily on size, and males mount any freshly fed partner regardless of sex.[39] The bed bug alarm pheromone consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disturbed, as during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated the alarm pheromone is also released by male bed bugs to repel other males that attempt to mate with them.[37][40]

Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, one of 479 eggs was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, Cimex hemipterus lectularius.[41][42]

Cimex lectularius males have environmental microbes on their genitals. These microbes damage sperm cells, leaving them unable to fertilize female gametes. Due to these dangerous microbes, males have evolved antimicrobial ejaculate substances that prevent sperm damage. When the microbes contact sperm or the male genitals, the bed bug releases antimicrobial substances. Many species of these microbes live in the bodies of females after mating. The microbes can cause infections in the females. It has been suggested that females receive benefit from the ejaculate. Though the benefit is not direct, females are able to produce more eggs than optimum increasing the amount of the females genes in the gene pool.[43]

In organisms, sexual selection extends past differential reproduction to affect sperm composition, sperm competition, and ejaculate size. Males of C. lectularius allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid per mating. Due to these findings, Reinhard et. al proposed that multiple mating is limited by seminal fluid and not sperm. After measuring ejaculate volume, mating rate and estimating sperm density, Reinhardt et al. showed that mating could be limited by seminal fluid. Despite these advances, the cost difference between ejaculate-dose dependence and mating frequency dependence have not been explored.[44]

Males fertilize females only by traumatic insemination into the structure called the ectospermalege (the organ of Berlese, however the organ of Ribaga (as it was first named) was first designated as an organ of stridulation. These two names are not descriptive, so other terminologies are used). On fertilization, the females ovaries finish developing, which suggests that sperm plays a role other than fertilizing the egg. Fertilization also allows for egg production through the corpus allatum. Sperm remains viable in a females spermathecae (a better term is conceptacle), a sperm-carrying sack, for a long period of time as long as body temperature is optimum. The female lays fertilized eggs until she depletes the sperm found in her conceptacle. After the depletion of sperm, she lays a few sterile eggs. The number of eggs a C. lectularius female produces does not depend on the sperm she harbors, but on the females nutritional level.[45]

In C. lectularius, males sometimes mount other males because male sexual interest is directed at any recently fed individual regardless of their sex, but unfed females may also be mounted. Traumatic insemination is the only way for copulation to occur in bed bugs. Females have evolved the spermalege to protect themselves from wounding and infection. Because males lack this organ, traumatic insemination could leave them injured badly. For this reason, males have evolved alarm pheromones to signal their sex to other males. If a male C. lectularius mounts another male, the mounted male releases the pheromone signal and the male on top stops before insemination.

Females are capable of producing alarm pheromones to avoid multiple mating, but they generally do not do so. Two reasons are proposed as to why females do not release alarm pheromones to protect themselves. First, alarm pheromone production is costly. Due to egg production, females may refrain from spending additional energy on alarm pheromones. The second proposed reason is that releasing the alarm pheromone reduces the benefits associated with multiple mating.[46] Benefits of multiple mating include material benefits, better quality nourishment or more nourishment, genetic benefits including increased fitness of offspring, and finally, the cost of resistance may be higher than the benefit of consentwhich appears the case in C. lectularius.[47]

Bed bugs have five immature nymph life stages and a final sexually mature adult stage.[48] They shed their skins through ecdysis at each stage, discarding their outer exoskeleton, which is somewhat clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults, and must consume at least one blood meal to complete each moult.[49]

Each of the immature stages lasts about a week, depending on temperature and the availability of food, and the complete lifecycle can be completed in as little as two months (rather long compared to other ectoparasites). Fertilized females with enough food lay three to four eggs each day continually until the end of their lifespans (about nine months under warm conditions), possibly generating as many as 500 eggs in this time.[49] Genetic analysis has shown that a single pregnant bed bug, possibly a single survivor of eradication, can be responsible for an entire infestation over a matter of weeks, rapidly producing generations of offspring.[50]

Slide of Cimex lectularius

Bed bug (4mm length; 2.5mm width), shown in a film roll plastic container, on the right is the recently sloughed skin from its nymph stage

A bed bug nymph feeding on a host

Blood-fed C. lectularius(note the differences in color with respect to digestion of blood meal)

Sexual dimorphism occurs in C. lectularius, with the females larger in size than the males on average. The abdomens of the sexes differ in that the males appear to have pointed abdomens, which are actually their copulatory organs, while females have more rounded abdomens. Since males are attracted to large body size, any bed bug with a recent blood meal can be seen as a potential mate. However, males will mount unfed, flat females on occasion. The female is able to curl her abdomen forward and underneath toward the head to not mate. Males are generally unable to discriminate between the sexes until after mounting, but before inseminating.[51]

C. lectularius only feeds every five to seven days, which suggests that it does not spend the majority of its life searching for a host. When a bed bug is starved, it leaves its shelter and searches for a host. If it successfully feeds, it returns to its shelter. If it does not feed, it continues to search for a host. After searchingregardless of whether or not it has eatenthe bed bug returns to the shelter to aggregate before the photophase (period of light during a day-night cycle). Reis argues that two reasons explain why C. lectulariuswould return to its shelter and aggregate after feeding. One is to find a mate and the other is to find shelter to avoid getting smashed after eating.[52]

C. lectularius aggregates under all life stages and mating conditions. Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. Airborne pheromones are responsible for aggregations. Another source of aggregation could be the recognition of other C. lectularius bugs through mechanoreceptors located on their antennae. Aggregations are formed and disbanded based on the associated cost and benefits. Females are more often found separate from the aggregation than males. Females are more likely to expand the population range and find new sites. Active female dispersal can account for treatment failures. Males, when found in areas with few females, abandon an aggregation to find a new mate. The males excrete an aggregation pheromone into the air that attracts virgin females and arrests other males.[53]

Bed bug eggs and two adult bed bugs from inside a dresser

A bed bug detection dog in New York

Bed bug roaming around carpet wrinkles

Bed bugs can exist singly, but tend to congregate once established. Though strictly parasitic, they spend only a tiny fraction of their lifecycles physically attached to hosts. Once a bed bug finishes feeding, it relocates to a place close to a known host, commonly in or near beds or couches in clusters of adults, juveniles, and eggswhich entomologists call harborage areas or simply harborages to which the insect returns after future feedings by following chemical trails. These places can vary greatly in format, including luggage, inside of vehicles, within furniture, amongst bedside cluttereven inside electrical sockets and nearby laptop computers. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds,[54] or rodents. They are also capable of surviving on domestic cats and dogs, though humans are the preferred host of C. lectularius.[55]

Bed bugs can also be detected by their characteristic smell of rotting raspberries.[56] Once you smell this scent, however, you can be assured of a massive infestation. Bed bug detection dogs are trained to pinpoint infestations, with a possible accuracy rate between 11% and 83%.[57]

Eradication of bed bugs frequently requires a combination of nonpesticide approaches and the occasional use of pesticides.[8][11]

Mechanical approaches, such as vacuuming up the insects and heat-treating or wrapping mattresses, are effective.[8][57] A combination of heat and drying treatments is most effective. An hour at a temperature of 45C (113F) or over, or two hours at less than 17C (1F) kills them;[57] a domestic clothes drier or steam kills bedbugs.[17] Another study found 100% mortality rates for bed bugs exposed to temperatures greater than 50C (122F) for more than 2 minutes.[58] Starving them is difficult as they can survive without eating for 100 to 300 days, depending on temperature.[57] For public health reasons, individuals are encouraged to call a professional pest control service to eradicate bed bugs in a home, rather than attempting to do it themselves, particularly if they live in a multifamily building.[59]

As of 2012, no truly effective pesticides were available.[57] Pesticides that have historically been found effective include pyrethroids,dichlorvos, and malathion.[11] Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time, and harm to health from their use is of concern.[8] The carbamate insecticide propoxur is highly toxic to bed bugs, but it has potential toxicity to children exposed to it, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has been reluctant to approve it for indoor use.[60] Boric acid, occasionally applied as a safe indoor insecticide, is not effective against bed bugs because they do not groom.[61][dubious discuss] The fungus Beauveria bassiana is being researched as of 2012 for its ability to control bed bugs.[62] As bed bugs continue to adapt pesticide resistance, researchers have examined on the insects genome to see how the adaptations develop and to look for potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited in the growth and development phases. [63]

Natural enemies of bed bugs include the masked hunter insect (also known as masked bed bug hunter),[64] cockroaches,[65] ants, spiders (particularly Thanatus flavidus), mites, and centipedes (particularly the house centipede Scutigera coleoptrata). However, biological pest control is not considered practical for eliminating bed bugs from human dwellings.[17]

Bed bugs occur around the world.[66] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[8][11][66] Previously, they were common in the developing world, but rare in the developed world.[11]The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[67][68]

The fall in bed bug populations after the 1930s in the developed world is believed partly due to the use of DDT to kill cockroaches.[69] The invention of the vacuum cleaner and simplification of furniture design may have also played a role.[69] Others believe it might simply be the cyclical nature of the organism.[70]

The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, increased immigration from the developing world to the developed world, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests, resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[11][67] Declines in household cockroach populations that have resulted from the use of insecticides effective against this major bed bug predator have aided the bed bugs resurgence, as have bans on DDT and other potent pesticides.[71]

The common bed bug (C. lectularius) is the species best adapted to human environments. It is found in temperate climates throughout the world. Other species include Cimex hemipterus, found in tropical regions, which also infests poultry and bats, and Leptocimex boueti, found in the tropics of West Africa and South America, which infests bats and humans. Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.[72]

Location in the contiguous United States

New Yorkoften called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a partis the most populous city in the United States[1] and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States[9][10][11] and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.[12][13] Aglobal power city,[14] New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, its fast pace[15] defining the term New York minute.[16] Home to the headquarters of the United Nations,[17] New York is an important center for international diplomacy[18] and has been described as the cultural and financial capital of the world.[19][20][21][22][23][24]

Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors,[25][26] New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of New York State.[27] The five boroughs Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island were consolidated into a single city in 1898.[28] With a census-estimated 2014 population of 8,491,079[1][29] distributed over a land area of just 305 square miles (790km2),[30] New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States.[31] As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York,[32][33][34] making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.[33][35][36] By 2014 census estimates, the New York City metropolitan region remains by a significant margin the most populous in the United States, as defined by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area (20.1million residents)[5] and the Combined Statistical Area(23.6million residents).[6] In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly US$1.39trillion,[37] while in 2012, the CSA[38] generated a GMP of over US$1.55trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDPof only twelve and eleven countries, respectively.[39]

New York City traces its roots to its 1624 founding as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.[40] The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664.[40][41][42] New York served as thecapital of the United States from 1785 until 1790.[43] It has been the countrys largest city since 1790.[44] The Statue of Libertygreeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries[45] and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy.[46]

Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known, and the city received a record 56 million tourists in 2014,[47] hosting three of the worlds ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013.[48] Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world.[49][50][51] Times Square, iconic as the worlds heart[52] and its Crossroads,[53] is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District,[54] one of the worlds busiest pedestrian intersections,[55][56] and a major center of the worlds entertainment industry.[57] The names of many of the citys bridges, skyscrapers,[58] and parks are known around the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world,[23][59][60][61][62][63] and the city is home to the worlds two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.[64][65]Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world.[66][67] Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere,[68][69] with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city.[70][71] Providing continuous 24/7 service,[72] the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metrosystems worldwide, with 469 stations in operation.[73][74][75][76] New York Citys higher education network comprises over 120 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.[77][78]

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